Immunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that helps your vulnerable system fight cancer. The vulnerable system helps your body fight infections and other conditions. It’s made up of white blood cells and organs and apkins of the lymph system. Immunotherapy is a type of natural remedy.
Gastro-Intestinal malice include cancer effecting esophagus, stomach, colon, liver, and other organs ofG.I tract.
Immunotherapy in early- stage Esophageal cancer
Treatment of localized non metastatic esophageal cancer is chemo plus radiation followed by surgery. Post chemo plus radiation response is veritablyimportant.However, prognostic of similar cases remains poor because of high relapse rates, If response is poor from chemo plus radiation.
Lately nivolumab ( Check point asset) was approved for cases who have poor response to chemo plus radiation as adjuvant remedy for 1 time. Results look veritably promising which means these cases can survive longer with the help of immunotherapy.
Immunotherapy for stage 4 Esophageal cancer
Stage 4 means non curable complaint and chemotherapy is the only options and latterly these cases develop resistance. Immunotherapy can be used now formerly chemotherapy fails to respond. It doesn’t cure metastatic esophageal cancer but many cases live longer maintaining good quality of life.
Immunotherapy works well in cases who are MSI deficient and have high PDL 1.
Treatment of stomach cancer depends on where the disease initiated and the extent of its spread throughout the body. If diagnosed early, surgery is the first-line treatment for stomach cancer, sometimes in combination with chemotherapy and/or radiation treatment. For advanced stomach cancer, treatment aims to stabilize disease progression and improve patients’ prognosis.
What’s the benefit of Immunotherapy in stomach cancer?
Immunotherapy is used in stage 4 stomach cancer after chemotherapy stops working in cases with high PDL 1 and High MSI. Piecemeal from that rearmost data has shown Immune check point impediments can be used outspoken with immunotherapy for the treatment of stage 4 metastatic stomach cancer. This means that Immunotherapy can be used outspoken for stomach cancer.
Medicines approved –
Nivolumab can be used in people with advanced stomach cancer, generally along with chemotherapy
Pembrolizumab can be used to treat advanced stomach cancer, generally after other treatments including chemotherapy have been tried, and if the cancer cells have any of the following
At least a certain quantum of the PD-L1 vulnerable checkpoint protein
A high position of microsatellite insecurity (MSI-H) or a disfigurement in a mismatch form gene (dMMR)
A high excrescence mutational burden (TMB-H), meaning they’ve numerous gene mutations
.For people with advanced stomach cancer that tests positive for HER2, this medicine can be used along with chemotherapy and immunotherapy.
In colon cancer immunotherapy isn’t used in early stage. Immunotherapy is used for stage 4 colon cancer progressing on chemotherapy or along with chemotherapy.
Immunotherapy is largely effective outspoken only if MSI is High (MSI-Deficient).
Pembrolizumab can be used as the first treatment for people with advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer. It’s given as an intravenous (IV) infusion every 3 or 6 weeks.
Nivolumab can be used alone or with ipilimumab ( see below) for people with metastatic colorectal cancer that has grown after treatment with chemotherapy.
Ipilimumab (Yervoy) is another medicine that boosts the vulnerable response, but it has a different target. It blocks CTLA-4, another protein on T cells that typically helps keep them in check.
This medicine can be used along with nivolumab (Opdivo) to treat colorectal cancer, but it’s not used alone. It’s given as an intravenous (IV) infusion, generally formerly every 3 weeks for 4 treatments.
Immunotherapy for the treatment of rectum has same suggestion in rectal cancer as in colon cancer.
Director research @MAX institute of cancer care.
Senior consultant medical and Hemato-oncology @MAX cance centre shalimarbagh.
Clinical lead in Medical oncology from MAX cancer centre shalimarbagh.
This has encouraged dr Abbas to dedicate himself to research in the field of immunotherapy. He has treated so far 500 patients with immunotherapy and has published research in International and National journals. Apart from that dr Abbas has done some breakthrough research in this field. Dr abbas have dedicated his life to immunotherapy research and is the pioneer of immunotherapy in India.